Name: 
 

Chapter 1 History, Theories, and Methods



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Development is:
a.
quantitative change in the individual over time
b.
predictable and consistent for all persons
c.
the orderly appearance, over time, of physical structures, psychological traits, and behaviours
d.
qualitative change in the individual over time
 

 2. 

How have children been viewed historically?
a.
as innately evil and in need of harsh discipline
b.
as miniature adults after age 7, or the "age of reason"
c.
as clean slates changed by experience
d.
all of these
 

 3. 

Who kept a "baby biography" describing his son's behaviour in great detail?
a.
John Locke
b.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
c.
Charles Darwin
d.
Sigmund Freud
 

 4. 

The superego:
a.
represents the moral standards and values of parents
b.
is innate and transmitted to the child genetically
c.
develops to help the child find rational ways of satisfying urges
d.
none of these
 

 5. 

Who suggested that we develop in a healthy fashion by confronting and resolving developmental crises in our lives?
a.
Karen Horney
b.
Erik Erikson
c.
Sigmund Freud
d.
Alfred Adler
 

 6. 

Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says "gotcha." Pretty soon, as soon as she says "gotcha," Kareem starts to laugh. This is an example of:
a.
habituation learning
b.
classical conditioning
c.
sensitization learning
d.
operant conditioning
 

 7. 

Punishment:
a.
is meant to decrease the frequency of a behaviour
b.
is usually less effective than reinforcement
c.
can have unwanted negative side effects
d.
all of these
 

 8. 

Is it possible for skills a child has learned to remain "latent" or unused?
a.
no, if they don't use it, they lose it
b.
yes, they may only use it when it is needed
c.
no, learning is an active, not a passive process
d.
yes, but only for motor skills such as jumping rope or playing basketball
 

 9. 

How are schemes changed?
a.
through assimilation
b.
through accommodation
c.
by comparing new information to existing schemes
d.
all of these
 

 10. 

According to information processing views:
a.
typing on a keyboard is like our short-term memory
b.
placing information in RAM memory is like sensory memory
c.
storing something to a hard drive is like long-term memory
d.
all of these
 

 11. 

Cross-cultural studies examine the effects of:
a.
mesosystems
b.
exosystems
c.
microsystems
d.
macrosystems
 

 12. 

Omar can tie his shoes, but only with his mother's help. This suggests that tying shoes:
a.
is beyond Omar's scope of capability
b.
is within Omar's zone of proximal development
c.
is an innate process that simply needs nurturing to unfold
d.
is too difficult for a child his age and should not be attempted
 

 13. 

The nature/nurture debate considers:
a.
why genes are more influential in development than environment
b.
why the environment is more important in development than evolution
c.
the relationship(s) between genetics, environment, and human development
d.
all of these
 

 14. 

Is development continuous or discontinuous?
a.
continuous
b.
discontinuous
c.
the answer to this is not known
d.
both - it may depend upon what aspect of development is being studied
 

 15. 

A researcher has found that the more hours students spend partying, the lower their exam scores. This represents:
a.
a fact of life for college students
b.
a negative correlation
c.
a positive correlation
d.
a case study
 

 16. 

Which of the following methods involves studying development over time?
a.
a longitudinal study
b.
an experiment
c.
a cross-sectional study
d.
none of these
 



 
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