Active Review- Chapter 1: History, Theories, and Methods

Complete each statement.


A child is a person undergoing the period of development from infancy to __________.



__________ is the orderly appearance, over time, of structures, traits, and behaviours.



The word growth is usually used to refer to changes in size or quantity, whereas the term __________ also refers to changes in quality.



__________ are intended to allow us to explain, predict, and control events.



__________ hypothesized five stages of psychosexual development.



Erikson extended Freud’s five stages of development to __________.



Behaviourism sees children’s learning as mechanical and relies on classical and __________ conditioning.



According to __________, children assimilate new events to existing schemes or accommodate schemes to incorporate novel events.



Information-__________ theory focuses on the processes by which information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and manipulated.



The __________ systems theory explains child development in terms of the interaction between children and the settings in which they live.



Vygotsky’s __________ theory is concerned with the transmission of information and cognitive skills from generation to generation.



Researchers in child development try to sort out the effects of __________ (heredity) and nurture (environmental influences).



Learning theorists tend to see development as continuous, whereas stage theorists see development as __________.



The steps of the scientific method include formulating a research question, developing a __________, testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions, and publishing results.



__________ observation studies are conducted in the real-life setting.



The __________ study is a carefully drawn account or biography of an individual child.



A correlational study describes relationships but does not reveal __________ and effect.



In an experiment, members of an experimental group receive a treatment, whereas members of a __________ group do not.



__________ research observes the same children repeatedly over time.



In cross-__________ research, children of different ages are observed and compared.


Check Your Work     Start Over