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Active Review- Chapter 1: History, Theories, and Methods



Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 1. 

A child is a person undergoing the period of development from infancy to __________.
 

 

 2. 

__________ is the orderly appearance, over time, of structures, traits, and behaviours.
 

 

 3. 

The word growth is usually used to refer to changes in size or quantity, whereas the term __________ also refers to changes in quality.
 

 

 4. 

__________ are intended to allow us to explain, predict, and control events.
 

 

 5. 

__________ hypothesized five stages of psychosexual development.
 

 

 6. 

Erikson extended Freud’s five stages of development to __________.
 

 

 7. 

Behaviourism sees children’s learning as mechanical and relies on classical and __________ conditioning.
 

 

 8. 

According to __________, children assimilate new events to existing schemes or accommodate schemes to incorporate novel events.
 

 

 9. 

Information-__________ theory focuses on the processes by which information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and manipulated.
 

 

 10. 

The __________ systems theory explains child development in terms of the interaction between children and the settings in which they live.
 

 

 11. 

Vygotsky’s __________ theory is concerned with the transmission of information and cognitive skills from generation to generation.
 

 

 12. 

Researchers in child development try to sort out the effects of __________ (heredity) and nurture (environmental influences).
 

 

 13. 

Learning theorists tend to see development as continuous, whereas stage theorists see development as __________.
 

 

 14. 

The steps of the scientific method include formulating a research question, developing a __________, testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions, and publishing results.
 

 

 15. 

__________ observation studies are conducted in the real-life setting.
 

 

 16. 

The __________ study is a carefully drawn account or biography of an individual child.
 

 

 17. 

A correlational study describes relationships but does not reveal __________ and effect.
 

 

 18. 

In an experiment, members of an experimental group receive a treatment, whereas members of a __________ group do not.
 

 

 19. 

__________ research observes the same children repeatedly over time.
 

 

 20. 

In cross-__________ research, children of different ages are observed and compared.
 

 



 
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